It is also possible to approximate effects by before versus after designs without control groups if confounding effects are negligible in a way similar to how it was done in this study However not all evaluators use such methods in assessing the impact of the interventions Some prefer to use more accessible approaches that depend on the common sense of the evaluator and on the theory of change of an intervention e g outcome mapping contribution analysis or building on stakeholders capacities in grasping and valuing causal relations e g Utilization Focused Evaluation Positive deviance a program for sustained improvement in hand hygiene compliance https www sciencedirect com science article pii S0196655310007388 casa token jA2VzImyhkAAAAA Bs8otGDRoMEBe84IqmrQ w15WwBiQ VUNKsZUBGBKbLHzrZ07RfiYj0rHx 9hUXSOPoGTSwWmw Outcome Mapping a Realistic Alternative for Planning Monitoring and Evaluation https odi org en publications outcome mapping a realistic alternative for planning monitoring and evaluation Adressing Attribution through Contribution Analysis Using Performance Measures Sensibly https www betterevaluation org en plan approach utilization focused evaluation Utilization Focused Evaluation https www betterevaluation org en plan approach utilization focused evaluation How and to whom will you communicate the M E results internally within the organization you work at How and to whom will you communicate the M E results externally the different project stakeholders and donors How will this data be used to design more effective interventions both internally and externally The last step of the M E process is to identify how and to whom data will be disseminated In order to do so ask yourself the following questions 1 2 3 For instance a team may want to review data on a monthly basis to make programmatic decisions and develop future work plans while meetings with the donor to review data and program progress might occur quarterly or annually Dissemination of printed or digital materials might occur at more frequent intervals Dissemination Honouring and amplifying the success stories by storytelling Enabling the community members to tell their stories and coach others within their networks Creating a living university for other communities to discover how the DPPD method could help them solve the same problem and reflect on what worked best General tips when disseminating results Basic field guide to the positive deviance approach https static1 squarespace com static 5a1eeb26fe54ef288246a688 t 5a6eca16c83025f9bac2eeff 1517210135326 FINALguide10072010 pdf 111 112

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