In the Ecuador cattle farming project 19 farmers 9 positive deviants and 10 non positive deviants were interviewed at their farms The interview schedules contained closed ended questions and observational checklists to capture contextual demographic and socioeconomic variables in addition to variables derived from the conceptual framework Open ended questions were also asked to uncover uncommon strategies attitudes and practices that positive deviants may have by comparing them with those of non positive deviants Community based participatory research is also commonly used in the conventional PD approach as it recognizes the importance of including community stakeholders in the different steps of the PD inquiry Practice shows this involvement mobilizes people creates buy in increases knowledge and changes attitudes The researcher or practitioner acts as a facilitator who creates a space for the community to elicit and share knowledge from and for action Examples of common participatory tools include Community based participatory research Discovery and action dialogues This type of dialogue is central to the PD approach which focuses on the solution rather than the problem The aim of this method is to ensure that in the presence of a facilitator people in the group unit or community elicit by themselves the positively deviant practices The dialogues also create favourable conditions for stimulating participants creativity in spaces where they can feel safe to invent new and more effective practices Resistance to change diminishes as participants are given the freedom to choose the practices they will try out and the problems they will tackle Further social proof increases the likelihood that solutions will be adopted The discovery and action dialogues DADs make it possible to achieve frontline ownership of solutions It acts as a tool that does both discovering positively deviant practices and mobilizing communities to take action Employing DADs in the PD approach This study used PD in the control of healthcare associated infections HAIs due to methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus MRSA in a Colombian hospital with the aim of reducing HAI rates through a cultural change in processes They used DADs in the presence of a facilitator a group of around eight positive deviants and other non positively deviant participants to discuss the identified problem and how barriers may be overcome to find a solution The group made proposals and commitments and identified specific actions to be taken forward as interventions The most feasible and low cost economic proposals were selected for implementation Using Positive Deviance in the prevention and control of MRSA infections in a Colombian hospital a time series analysis https www emerald com insight content doi 10 1108 QMR 06 2016 0053 full html loginreload Check this guide on how to do DADs https www liberatingstructures com 10 discovery action dialogue 85 86

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