Fieldwork Planning Publication outperformance among global South researchers An analysis of individual level and publication level predictors of positive deviance https link springer com article 10 1007 s11192 021 04128 1 To validate if the potential positive deviants are indeed true positive deviants To uncover the underlying factors responsible for their deviance By now you should have identified a list of potential positive deviants In the first step of Stage 3 you will prepare all the instruments necessary for conducting the fieldwork for the Positive Deviance PD inquiry The goal of the fieldwork is twofold You should expect to consult with a variety of stakeholders all of whom should have something to do with your performance measure Consider a stakeholder anyone who has an indirect or direct relationship with your units of analysis and could be part of the problem or the solution Start by asking yourself who these stakeholders are Get familiar with their social and cultural environment and keep them in mind when approaching them For further guidance check Tool 3 1 in the tools section We recommend discussing your conceptual framework with relevant stakeholders and the colleagues who were involved in the previous quantitative stage to make sure you did not miss anything such as the control variables that were used in positive deviant identification that might require validation After mapping out the different stakeholders ask yourself how you are going to collect the information you need to validate your positive deviants and uncover the underlying factors of their deviance There are generally two approaches a qualitative approach e g interviews and a quantitative approach e g surveys But you can also use a mix of both i e mixed methods The data collection section presents the methods you can use for each of the approaches We generally encourage a mixed methods approach It enables you to first gain highly specific and valuable insights from a small information rich sample of positive deviants These will help you generate hypotheses about the individual cultural social and structural factors that are likely to influence deviance which you will validate through more structured investigations with a larger sample including both positive deviants and non positive deviants In the Ecuador cattle farming pilot the unit of analysis was cattle raising farms The field inquiry targeted farm owners workers families farmer associations and community leaders Conceptual framework Before developing your data collection tools it is important to read any background literature and understand the conceptual frameworks that others may have developed and used when investigating similar topics Are there any dominant theories or models that are used Are there any approaches or variables that have not yet been taken but which you or any of the stakeholders think could add something new Can you combine elements of different approaches which could help you better understand your positive deviants Look for frameworks that are based on a thorough understanding of the studied topic and are aligned with existing literature Study design In the Egypt research publication case study positively deviant researchers were first interviewed to generate hypotheses about the basis for their performance Quantitative data was then collected from both positive deviants and non positive deviants to validate those hypotheses and to identify significant differences between both groups Figure 9 proposes a mixed methods study design Note however that in cases where you only have a small number of potential positive deviants or where you only have limited resources to conduct large scale surveys you may prefer an entirely qualitative approach Conversely when doing retrospective studies using secondary data sources or when it is difficult to have face to face engagements with stakeholders you may prefer an entirely quantitative approach 77 78

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